Oral Cavity Measurement
Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has been shown to be capable of monitoring the microcirculation as it offers a two-dimensional map of blood flow with high spatial resolution. Progression and the healing of diseases in connection with microcirculation such as periodontitis, and surgical interventions in the oral cavity such as implant placement, involves substantial anatomical reorganization of the affected tissue. Only techniques capable of capturing the 2-D heterogeneity of blood flow changes are suitable for follow up. LSCI has the capacity to do so over an entire mucosal surface in a non-invasive manner without having contact with the surface of the tissue.
Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring has also been shown to be a powerful technique for measuring gingival and pulpal blood flow. The implementation of LDF in dentistry is still low, but it is in fact, the most studied and well-documented method for registration of pulpal blood flow1H.J.J. Roeykens, R.J.G. De Moor (2016) Laser Doppler Flowmetry. In: G. Olivi, R. De Moor, E. DiVito (eds) Lasers in Endodontics. Springer, Cham with hundreds of publications.
- 1. Molnár E, Fazekas R, Lohinai Z, Tóth Z, Vág J. Assessment of the test-retest reliability of human gingival blood flow measurements by Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging in a healthy cohort. Microcirculation. 2018;25(2).
2. Molnár B, Molnár E, Fazekas R, Gánti B, Mikecs B, Vág J. Assessment of Palatal Mucosal Wound Healing Following Connective-Tissue Harvesting by Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging: An Observational Case Series Study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2019;39(2):e64-e70.
3. Molnár E, Molnár B, Lohinai Z, Tóth Z, Benyó Z, Hricisák L, et al. Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study. BioMed research international. 2017;2017:4042902.
4. Fazekas R, Molnár E, Lohinai Z, Dinya E, Tóth Z, Windisch P, et al. Functional characterization of collaterals in the human gingiva by laser speckle contrast imaging. Microcirculation. 2018;25(3):e12446.
5. Mikecs B, Molnár E, Fazekas R, Vág J. Microvascular reactivity of peri-implant mucosa in humans: effect of abutment material. International Journal of Periodontology and Restorative Dentistry. 2021;accepted.
6. Fazekas R, Molnár E, Nagy P, Mikecs B, Windisch P, Vág J. A Proposed Method for Assessing the Appropriate Timing of Early Implant Placements: A Case Report. J Oral Implantol. 2018;44(5):378-83.
7. Ganti B, Molnar E, Fazekas R, Mikecs B, Lohinai Z, Miko S, et al. Evidence of spreading vasodilation in the human gingiva evoked by nitric oxide. Journal of periodontal research. 2019;54(5):499-505.
8. Vág J, Gánti B, Mikecs B, Szabó E, Molnár B, Lohinai Z. Epinephrine penetrates through gingival sulcus unlike keratinized gingiva and evokes remote vasoconstriction in human. BMC Oral Health. 2020;20(1):305.
9. Fazekas R, Molnár B, Kőhidai L, Láng O, Molnár E, Gánti B, et al. Blood flow kinetics of a xenogeneic collagen matrix following a vestibuloplasty procedure in the human gingiva-An explorative study. Oral Dis. 2019;25(7):1780-8.
10. Mikecs B, Vág J, Gerber G, Molnár B, Feigl G, Shahbazi A. Revisiting the vascularity of the keratinized gingiva in the maxillary esthetic zone. BMC Oral Health. 2021;21(1):160.
11. Fazekas R, Molnár E, Mikecs B, Lohinai Z, Vág J. A Novel Approach to Monitoring Graft Neovascularization in the Human Gingiva. J Vis Exp. 2019(143).
János Vág PhD, d.m.d. email@example.com
Eszter Molnár PhD, d.m.d. firstname.lastname@example.org
Réka Fazekas PhD, d.m.d. email@example.com
Bernadett Gánti PhD, d.m.d. firstname.lastname@example.org
Barbara Mikecs d.m.d. email@example.com
Faculty of Dentistry, Semmelweis University
We have used Pericam PSI camera:
- to evaluate the test and retest reliability of LSCI for blood flow measurement of the gingiva2E. Molnár, R. Fazekas, Z. Lohinai, Z. Tóth Z, J. Vág Assessment of the test-retest reliability of human gingival blood flow measurements by Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging in a healthy cohort. Microcirculation. 2018 Feb,
- to evaluate the palatal mucosal wound healing following connective tissue harvesting3B. Molnár, E. Molnár, R. Fazekas, B. Gánti, B. Mikecs, J. Vág Assessment of palatal mucosal wound healing following connective tissue harvesting by Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging: observational, case series study. The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, accepted: 2018-07-14,
- to follow up healing of the gingiva after periodontal plastic surgery for root coverage utilizing xenogenic collagen (Geistlich Mucograft) or autologous graft4E. Molnár, B. Molnár, Z. Lohinai, Z. Tóth, Z. Benyó, L. Hricisák, P. Windisch, J. Vág Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:4042902,
- to assess spatial and temporal character of post occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) after transient compression of gingiva5R. Fazekas, E. Molnár, Z. Lohinai, E. Dinya, Z. Tóth, P. Windisch, J. Vág Functional characterization of collaterals in the human gingiva by laser speckle contrast imaging. Microcirculation. 2018 Apr;25(3):e12446.,
- to assess the appropriate timing of early implant placement by measuring the restoration of the blood flow6R. Fazekas, E. Molnár, P. Nagy, B. Mikecs, P. Windisch, J. Vág A proposed method for assessing the appropriate timing of early implant placements: a case report. J Oral Implantol. 2018 Jun [Epub ahead of print] .
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